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The ruin of Hammershus, at the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location.

Bornholm Regional Municipality, established January 2003 by the merger of Bornholm County with 5 municipalities, covers the entire island.

It typically takes 3 hours for passengers and freight (ferry:2 hours;driving:1 hour) to travel between Rønne and Copenhagen via Ystad in Sweden. There are also ferry routes to Sassnitz and Swinoujscie.

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On 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its short-lived (2003 until 2006) county status and became part of the Capital Region of Denmark.Strategically located in the Baltic Sea, Bornholm has been fought over for centuries.It has usually been ruled by Denmark, but also by Lübeck and Sweden.The main industries on the island include fishing, dairy farming, and arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay. There is an especially large number of Denmark's round churches on the island.The island is called Solskinsøen (The Sunshine Island) because of its weather and Klippeøen (The Rock Island) because of its geology.

The island is situated between 54/59/11 and 55/17/30 northern latitude and 14/45 and 15/11 eastern longitude.

Directly west of Bornholm across the Baltic Sea mostly on the island of Sjælland are several municipalities of Region Sjælland: Stevns, Faxe, Næstved (the part that used to be the municipality of Fladså) and Vordingborg, including Møn, which is around 135 km (84 mi) across the Baltic Sea.

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) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.

The heat from the summer is stored in the rock formations and the weather is quite warm until October.

The island's topography consists of dramatic rock formations in the north (unlike the rest of Denmark, which is mostly gentle rolling hills) sloping down towards pine and deciduous forests (greatly affected by storms in the 1950s), farmland in the middle and sandy beaches in the south.